Least Intrusive Minimally Aversive

LIMA is a principle that acts in the horse’s best interest.


Least Intrusive Minimally Aversive


Least Intrusive Minimally Aversive (LIMA) is a principle that acts in the horse’s best interest by maximising choice and control and minimising unpleasant experiences, while ensuring welfare and safety.

It is dynamic, context specific and applies categorically to all aspects of the horse’s life, be it management, interaction or training. LIMA is signified by tailoring the horse’s level of control to each individual situation.

For example when training turn on the forehand, we use positive reinforcement, with the horse at liberty, in a space where there are other reinforcers, such as a haynet, which offers an alternative to interacting with the trainer. However, if the horse is lead on a public highway, his options needs limited to ensure everbody’s safety.

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Applied Behaviour Course

This encourages students to understand the behavioural needs of horses as a species, and assess each horse as an individual 

Evaluating the quality of their environment, their physical and mental welfare, how to train with the horse in mind and how to assess and work with unwanted behaviours.


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ProfessIONAL Equine psychology specialist Training

After completing and passing the Applied Behaviour Course, you may apply to attend the professional training and become an EBA Registered Equine Psychology Specialist. 

The training is a mixture of classroom work and supported reflective practices with real clients and cases.